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        Last update : September 03, 2003
                  Second Session : The Yield Issue                  
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  Logo EFPG     IX - Existing pulping alternatives to improve yield and benefits
Economics of Yield Increase (slides 1-8)


M. Sundar, M. Muguet, M. Epiney et G. Homer (Air Liquide)
 
     
 
1 - Agenda
  What is yield?
  What do we mean by improved yield?
  Is Yield a concern in today's economic environment?
  Current options available if we split the kraft process
into various zones
  Air Liquide vision and contributions
  Conclusions
   
2 - Introduction
In all simplicity, we want to:
    Minimize carbohydrate loss (hemicellulose
included)
  Drop the amount of lignin removed
  Combine the two
Wood Components Pine (%) Birch (%)
Cellulose 38-40 40-41
Glucomannan 15-20 2-5
Xylan 7-10 25-30
Lignin 27-29 20-22
 Pulp Components  Pine (%) Birch (%)
Cellulose 35 34
Glucomannan 5 1
Xylan 5 16
Lignin 2-3 1.5-2
 
     
 
3 - Yield loss in pulping by
alkaline peeling reaction
   
4 - Key drivers
To decrease wood consumption per ton of pulp (or obtain
more pulp per ton of wood), key drivers are:
    pulp and paper prices
  wood cost
  utilities
 
     
 
5 - Wood information (1)
Global components of wood
Costs fair estimates
In the cost of wood, stumpage accounts for 66%, harvesting
for 21% and transport for 13% (admin. cost excluded).
Data from: Wood Resources International
   
6 - Wood information (2)
Global average wood fiber price
Yearly variation of wood fiber price (US$/odmt), from 1989
to 2002 (conifer and non-conifer).
Data from: Wood Resources International
 
     
 
7 - Wood information (3)
Conifer wood chip prices
Delivered - Q2 2002
Conifer wood chip prices for US South, Chile (round wood),
US North-West, Sweden, Finland, Canada West, Canada
East and Japan (in US$/m3).
Data from: Wood Resources International
   
8 - Wood information (4)
Non-conifer round wood prices
Delivered - Q2 2002
Non-conifer round wood prices for US South, Chile, Spain,
Indonesia, Finland, Canada and Japan (in US$/m3).
Data from: Wood Resources International
 
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