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Last update : July 28th, 2005
EFPG-CTP:  "Fibre Functionalisation Workshop" (in French)


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The “Laboratoire Génie des Procédés Papetiers (LGP2)” of the “École Française de Papeterie et des Industries Graphiques” (EFPG) and the “Centre Technique du Papier” (CTP) organize a workshop seminar on September 8th & 9th, 2005, entitled “Fibre Functionalisation Workshop”. (Programme)
The main objective of this event is survey the state of the art of the different approaches applied to surface modification of cellulose fibres.


Naceur Belgacem
(July 25th, 2005)

Provide the fibres intelligent functions

More information...

The main goal of the surface treatments of cellulose fibres is to provide them intelligent functions, such as way that they become : hydrophobic, which protect them from water uptake and release ; to make them reactive towards polymeric matrices in order to elaborate high performance composites materials ; to graft at their surface specific sensors to render them photoluminescents, electrically conductive materials, etc.

Several domains of applications could be envisaged, namely:

    cellulose-based composite materials for automotive and packaging;
  bio–degradable materials and intelligent packaging;
  materials traceability;
  conductive papers for electronic and optoelectronic applications, etc.

Ten years of scientific experiment within the LGP2

This research activity is carried out since 10 years within the LGP2. It was initiated in the Gandini’s research group, after a post-doc training of one of its researchers (Naceur Belgacem) at the Polytechnic School of Montreal in Canada. The surface functionalisation of cellulose fibres can be achieved by various surface treatments, such as:

    Purely physical treatments, like solvent extractions;
  physico-chemical treatment and particularly corona treatment;
  Chemical treatments.
They are calling upon the use of three different approaches, namely:
1. Chemical grafting by direct condensation, including surface compatibilisation with hydrophobic moieties.
2. The use of bi-functional molecules capable of reacting with the OH groups of the cellulose surface and leaving the second functions available for further exploitation or such as copolymerisation with the matrix grafting of biocide molecules.
3. The condensation of organo-metallic-compounds, followed by their coupling with suitable reactive molecules or macromolecules, in view of hydrophobization of the surface and/or its copolymerisation with the matrix.

A research activity reinforced, in relation with current industrial attempts

This activity was recently reinforced by hiring Alain Dufresne, a new professor who is specialized in the field of nano-particles of cellulose (whiskers), chitin and starch. Since the beginning of this research activity within LGP2, about forty publications and communications have appeared (following bibliographical list).

The "Laboratoire Génie des Procédés Papetiers", with a close collaboration with CTP, becomes a key partner in the mounting projects within this field of research, as witnesses its active participation the integrated European project “SustainPack” or international pole of competitiveness “Minalogic”.

Bibliographical list of publications and communications
01. Belgacem M.N., Bataille P., Sapieha S. Effect of corona modification on the mechanical properties of polypropylene/cellulose composites. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 1994, vol.53, n°4, p.379-385
02. Cordeiro N., Carlos Pascoal N., Gandini A., Belgacem M.N. Characterization of the cork surface by inverse gas chromatography. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 1995, vol.174, n°1, p.246-249
03. Belgacem M.N., Czeremuszkin G., Sapieha S., Gandini A. Surface characterization of cellulose fibers by XPS and IGC. Cellulose, 1995, vol.2, p.145-157
04. Belgacem M.N., Blayo A., Gandini A. Surface characterization of polysaccharides, lignins, printing ink pigments, and ink fillers by inverse gas chromatography. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 1996, vol.182, n°2, p.431-436
05. Cordeiro N., Aurenty P., Belgacem M.N., Gandini A., Pascoal Neto C. Surface properties of suberin. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 1997, vol.187, n°2, p.498-508
06. Lanet V., Belgacem M.N., Gandini A. Caractérisation physico-chimique de nouvelles formulations de vernis pour le procédé d’impression offset sans mouillage à base de produits d’origine végétale. Double Liaison, 1998, Tome 44, nº501, p.34-38
07. Trejo-O’Reilly J.A., Cavaillet J.Y., Belgacem M.N., Gandini A. Surface energy and wettability of modified cellulosic fibres for use in composite materials. The Journal of Adhesion, 1998, vol.67, p.359-374
08. Gandini A., Belgacem M.N. Recent advances in the elaboration of polymeric materials from biomass components. Polymer International, 1998, vol.47, n°3, p.267-276
09. Belgacem M.N., Gandini A. IGC as a tool to characterize dispersive and acid-based properties of the surface of fibers and powders. Pefferkorn Emile. Interfacial phenomena in chromatography. New York : Marcel Dekker, 1999, p.41-124 (Chap. 2)
10. Godinho M.H., Martins A.F., Belgacem M.N., Gil L., Cordeiro N. Properties and processing of cork powder filled cellulose derivatives composites. Macromolecular Symposia, 2001, vol.169, n°1, p.223-228
11. Borges J. P., Godinho H. M., Martins F. A., Trindade A.C., Belgacem M.N. Cellulose-based composites films. Mechanics of Composite Materials, 2001, vol.37, n°3, p.257-264
12. Borges J. P., Godinho M. H., Belgacem M.N., Martins A. F. New bio-composites based on short fibre reinforced hydroxypropyl-cellulose films. Composite Interfaces, 2001, vo.8, n°3,4, p.233-241
13. Mekki A., Boufi S., Ben Salah A., Belgacem M.N., Gandini A. Interaction of silane coupling agents with cellulose. Langmuir, 2002, vol.18, n°8, p.3203-3208
14. Gandini A., Belgacem M.N. Recent contribution to the preparation of polymers derived from renewable resources. Journal of Polymers and the Environment, 2002, vol.10, n°3, p.105-114
15. Belgacem M.N. Characterization of surface properties of natural and synthetic fibers. Mattoso L.H.C., Leão A., Frollini E. Natural Polymers and Composites. São Paulo : Embrapa, 2002, p.4-8.
16. Abdelmouleh M., Boufi S., Ben Salah A., Gandini A., Belgacem M.N. Interaction os of silane coupling agents with cellulose. Anderson G. L. Adhesion fundamentals: from molecules to mechanisms and modelling. in Proceedings of 26th Annual Meeting of the Adhesion Society, 2003, Myrtle Beach, NC, USA, p.237-240
17. Gopalan Nair K., Dufresne A., Gandini A., Belgacem M.N. Crab shell chitin whiskers reinforced natural rubber nanocomposites. 3. Effect of chemical modification of chitin whiskers. Biomacromolecules, 2003, vol.4, n°6, p.1835-1842
18. Abdelmouleh M., Boufi S., Belgacem M.N., Duarte A.P., Ben Salah A., Gandini A. Modification of cellulosic fibres with functionnelised silanes: development of surface properties. International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, 2004, vol.24, n°1, p.43-54
19. Fabbri P., Champon G., Castellano M., Belgacem M.N., Gandini A. Reaction of cellulose and wood superficial hydroxy groups with organometallic compounds Polymer International, 2004, vol.53, n°1, p.7-11
20. Belgacem M.N., Gandini A. Surface modification of cellulolse fibres: a review. Chaudhury M.K., Anderson G.L. Adhesion fundamentals: from molecules to mechanisms and modelling.in Proceedings of 27th Annual Meeting of the Adhesion Society, 2004, Wilmington, NC, USA, p.483-486
21. Borges J. P., Godinho H.M., Martins F. A., Stamatialis D. F., De Pinho M.N., Belgacem M.N. Tensile propeties of cellulose fiber reinforced hydroxypropylcellulose films. Polymer Composites, 2004, vol.25, n°1, p.102-110
22. Castellano M., Gandini A., Fabbri P., Belgacem M.N. Modification of cellulose fibres with organosilanes: under what conditions does coupling occur? Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 2004, vol.273, n°2, p.505-511
23. Aloulou F., Boufi S., Belgacem M.N., Gandini A. Adsorption of cationic surfactants and subsequent adsolubilisation of organic compounds onto cellulose fibers. Colloid & Polymer Science, 2004, vol.283, n°3, p.344-350
24. Botaro V. R., Gandini A., Belgacem M.N. Heterogeneous chemical modification of cellulose for composite materials. Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, 2005, vol.18, n°2, p.107-117
25. Angellier H., Molina-Boisseau S., Belgacem M.N., Dufresne A. Surface chemical modification of waxy maize starch nanocrystals. Langmuir, 2005, vol.21, n°6, p.2425-2433
26. Gandini A., Belgacem M.N. Modified cellulose fibers as reinforcing fillers for macromolecular matrices. Macromolecular Symposia, 2005, vol.221, n°1, p.257-270
27. Bach S., Belgacem M.N., Gandini A. Hydrophobisation and densification of wood by different chemical treatments. Holzforschung, 2005, vo.59, n°4, p.389-396
28. Brochier-Salon M.C., Abdelmouleh M., Boufi S., Belgacem M. N, Gandini A. Silane adsorption onto cellulose fibers: hydrolysis and condensation reactions. Journal of Colloid Interface Science, 2005, vol.289, n°1, p.249-261
29. Belgacem M.N., Gandini A. Surface modification of cellulose fibres. Polymeros: Ciência e Tecnologia, 2005, vol.15, n°2, p.109-113
30. Belgacem M.N. Characterisation of lignocellulosics by inverse gas chromatography: a review. Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, 2000, 34, p.357-383
31. Belgacem M.N., Gandini A. The surface modification of cellulose fibres for use as reinforcing elements in composite materials. Composite Interface, 2005, vol.12, n°1-2, p.41-75
32. Abdelmouleh M., Boufi S., Belgacem M.N., Dufresne A., Gandini A. Modification of cellulose fibres with functionnalised silanes: effect of the fibre treatment on the mechanical performances of cellulose-thermoset composites. Journal of Applied Polymer Science : à paraître
33. Alila S. Boufi, Belgacem M.N., Beneventi D. Adsorption of cationic surfactant onto cellulosic fibres. 
I – Surface charge effects.
Langmuir : à paraître
34. Belgacem M.N., Blayo-Le Moal A., Gandini A. Surface characterization of polysaccharides, cork, 
lignins and printing ink pigments and fillers by IGC.
Eurofillers’ 95, Mulhouse, France, septembre 1995, p.147-150
35. Lanet V., Belgacem M.N., Gandini A. Caractérisation physico-chimique de nouvelles formulations de vernis pour le procédé d’impression offset sans mouillage à base de produits d’origine végétale. Eurocoat' 97, Lyon, France, septembre 1997, p.39-58
36. Cordeiro N., Godinho M. H., Belgacem M.N., Martins A.F., Gil L., Cordeiro N. Properties and processing of cork powder filled cellulose derivatives composites. Eurofillers' 99, Lyon, France, 6-9 septembre 1999
37. Borges J. P., Godinho M. H., Belgacem M.N., Martins A.F. New bio-composites based on short fibre reinforced hydroxypropyl-cellulose films. Eurofillers’ 99, Lyon, France, 6-9 septembre 1999
38. Belgacem M.N. Characterization of surface properties of natural and synthetic fibers. IVth International Symposium on Natural Polymers and Composites, September 2002, São Pedro, São Paulo, Brazil
39. Belgacem M.N., Gandini A. Physical, chemical and physico-chemical surface modification of cellulose fibers. Vth International Symposium on Natural Polymers and Composites
&
8th Brazilian Symposium on the Chemistry of Lignins and other Wood Components, September 12th-15th, São Pedro, São Paulo, Brazil
40. Freire C.S.R., Silvestre A.J.D., Pascoal Neto C., Belgacem M.N., Gandini A. Surface modification of cellulose fibres with fatty acids: effect of the reaction conditions on the extent of the reaction and fibre properties. IXth European Workshop on Lignocellulosics and Pulp, August 26th-29th, 2004, Riga, Latvia
41. Pasquini D., Belgacem M.N., Gandini A., Curvelo A.A.S. Surface chemical and modification of microcrystalline cellulose: surface characterization by contact angle measurements. Vth International Symposium on Natural Polymers and Composites
&
8th Brazilian Symposium on the Chemistry of Lignins and other Wood Components, September 12th-15th, 2004, São Pedro, São Paulo, Brazil
42. Belgacem M.N. Physical, chemical and physico-chemical surface modification of cellulose fibers. Vth International Symposium on Natural Polymers and Composites
&
8th Brazilian Symposium on the Chemistry of Lignins and other Wood Components, September 12th-15th, 2004, São Pedro, São Paulo, Brazil, 4 p.
43. Bach S., Belgacem M.N., Gandini A. Surface modification of cellulose fibers in view of their protection against fungi and water absorption. IVth International Symposium of Regional Coordination Council of Wood Science, October 13th-16th, 2004, Saint-Petersburg Russia, p.402-405.

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